The Telescope

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

Constellations of the month

 

 
CURRENT MOON

Saturn

Saturn, at the start of its new apparition, rises at around 5 am at the start of the month and just after 3 am at its end. With an angular size of ~15.5 arc seconds it climbs higher before dawn and so becomes easier to spot as the month progresses. Its brightness remains at +0.6 magnitudes. The rings were at their widest a few months ago and are still, at 26 degrees to the line of sight, well open. Saturn, lying in Sagittarius, is just 3 degrees above the topmost star of the 'teapot'. Sadly, even when at opposition later in the year it will only reach an elevation of just over 15 degrees above the horizon when crossing the meridian. Atmospheric dispersion will thus greatly hinder our view and it might be worth considering purchasing the ZWO Atmospheric Dispersion Corrector to counteract its effects.

Jupiter

Jupiter rises around 2 am at the beginning of the month and just before midnight by month's end. Initially it has a 36 arc second disk, shining at a magnitude of -2 but as the month progresses, its apparent diameter increases to 39 arc seconds and it brightens to magnitude -2.2. Jupiter will transit before dawn and so will enable the giant planet to be seen with the equatorial bands, sometimes the Great (but reducing in size) Red Spot and up to four of its Gallilean moons visible in a small telescope. Sadly, Jupiter, lying in Libra during the month, is heading towards the southern part of the ecliptic and will only have an elevation of ~20 degrees when crossing the meridian. Atmospheric dispersion will thus hinder our view and it might be worth considering purchasing the ZWO Atmospheric Dispersion Corrector to counteract its effects.

Mars

Mars starts the month moving quicky eastwards in Scorpius close to Beta Scorpii (Graffias) but moves into Ophiuchus on the 8th of the month. Now a morning object at the start of its new apparition, it rises four hours or so earlier than the Sun. During the month, Mars has a magnitude which increases from +1.2 to +0.8 and an angular size of just 5.6, increasing to 6.6, arc seconds so no details will be seen on its salmon-pink surface. It will only reach an elevation of ~14 degrees before dawn at the start of the month and just 12 degrees by month's end.

Venus

Venus, passed through superior conjunction (on the far side of the Sun) on January 9th and so, at the beginning of February will be lost in the Sun's glare, setting less than half an hour after the Sun. However, by month's end, shining with a magnitude of -3.9, it will set around an hour after the Sun and its 10 arc second disk should be easy to spot 30 minutes or so after sunset. However a low western horizon will be needed as it will then only have an elevation of ~5 degrees some way to the south of west.

Mercury

Mercury passes through superior conjuction (between us and the Sun) on the 17th February so will be lost in the Sun's glare until the very end of the month when it might just be glimpsed after sunset with its ~5 arc second disk having an unusually bright magnitude of -1.5.

The Night Sky In and Around Swindon February 2018

Slide Presentation

The following presentation was given at our meeting on the 17th November, 2017 by Rob Slack

The constellation Taurus

Taurus is one of the most beautiful constellations and you can almost imagine the Bull charging down to the left towards Orion. His face is delineated by the "V" shaped cluster of stars called the Hyades, his eye is the red giant star Aldebaran and the tips of his horns are shown by the stars beta and zeta Tauri. Although alpha Tauri, Aldebaran, appears to lie amongst the stars of the Hyades cluster it is, in fact, less than half their distance lying 68 light years away from us. It is around 40 times the diameter of our Sun and 100 times as bright.


The Hyiades and Pleiades. Copyright: Alson Wong

More beautiful images by Alson Wong : Astrophotography by Alson Wong

To the upper right of Taurus lies the open cluster, M45, the Pleiades. Often called the Seven Sisters, it is one of the brightest and closest open clusters. The Pleiades cluster lies at a distance of 400 light years and contains over 3000 stars. The cluster, which is about 13 light years across, is moving towards the star Betelgeuse in Orion. Surrounding the brightest stars are seen blue reflection nebulae caused by reflected light from many small carbon grains. These relfection nebulae look blue as the dust grains scatter blue light more efficiently than red. The grains form part of a molecular cloud through which the cluster is currently passing. (Or, to be more precise, did 400 years ago!)


VLT image of the Crab Nebula
Close to the tip of the left hand horn lies the Crab Nebula, also called M1 as it is the first entry of Charles Messier's catalogue of nebulous objects. Lying 6500 light years from the Sun, it is the remains of a giant star that was seen to explode as a supernova in the year 1056. It may just be glimpsed with binoculars on a very clear dark night and a telescope will show it as a misty blur of light.

Lord Rosse's drawing of M1
Its name "The Crab Nebula" was given to it by the Third Earl of Rosse who observed it with the 72 inch reflector at Birr Castle in County Offaly in central Ireland. As shown in the drawing above, it appeared to him rather lile a spider crab. The 72 inch was the world's largest telelescope for many years. At the heart of the Crab Nebula is a neutron star, the result of the collapse of the original star's core. Although only around 20 km in diameter it weighs more than our Sun and is spinning 30 times a second. Its rotating magnetic field generate beams of light and radio waves which sweep across the sky. As a result, a radio telescope will pick up very regular pulses of radiation and the object is thus also known a Pulsar. Its pulses are monitored each day at Jodrell Bank with a 13m radio telescope.
The constellation Orion

Orion, perhaps the most beautiful of constellations, will be seen in the south at around 11 - 12 pm during January. Orion is the hunter holding up a club and shield against the charge of Taurus, the Bull up and to his right. Alpha Orionis, or Betelgeuse, is a read supergiant star varying in size between three and four hundred times that of our Sun. The result is that its brightness varies somewhat. Beta Orionis, or Rigel, is a blue supergiant which, at around 1000 light years distance is about twice as far away as Betelgeuse. It has a 7th magnitude companion. The three stars of Orion's belt lie at a distance of around 1500 light years. Just below the lower left hand star lies a strip of nebulosity against which can be seen a pillar of dust in the shape of the chess-board knight. It is thus called the Horsehead Nebula. It shows up very well photographically but is exceedingly difficult to see visually - even with relativly large telescope.


The Horsehead Nebula: Anglo Australian Observatory
Beneath the central star of the belt lies Orion's sword containing one of the most beautiful sights in the heavens - The Orion Nebula. It is a region of star formation and the reddish colour seen in photographs comes from Hydrogen excited by ultraviolet emitted from the very hot young stars that make up the Trapesium which is at its heart. The nebula, cradling the trapesium stars, is a beautiful sight in binoculars or, better still, a telescope. To the eye it appears greenish, not red, as the eye is much more sensitive to the green light emitted by ionized oxygen than the reddish glow from the hydrogen atoms.

The Orion Nebula: David Malin
February 6th and 22nd evening: The Hyginus Rille
February 8th before dawn: A waning Moon close to Jupiter - with Mars nearby

The Moon and Jupiter in the pre-dawn sky.

If clear before dawn on the 8th, a waning moon between Full Moon and Last Quarter lies close to Jupiter. Down to the left is Mars lying above Antares in Scorpius.

Compiled by Ian Morison - Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics
February 23rd/24th evening: The Moon in a beautiful skyscape

In the evenings of the 23rb and 24th of the month, the Moon, coming towards first quarter, will pass through Taurus and Orion. On the 23rd, it will lie close to Aldebaran and on the 24th lie above Orion.

The planets this month
For some time a debate raged as to whether the craters on the Moon were caused by impacts or volcanic activity. We now know that virtually all were caused by impact, but it is thought that the Hyginus crater that lies at the centre of the Hyginus Rille may well be volcanic in origin. It is an 11 km wide rimless pit - in contast to impact craters which have raised rims - and its close association with the rille of the same name associates it with internal lunar events. It can quite easily be seen to be surrounded by dark material. It is thought that an explosive release of dust and gas created a vacant space below so that the overlying surface collapsed into it so forming the crater.

Hyginus Crater and Rille, see the trench at the centre of the photo.