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Constellations of the month

 

 
CURRENT MOON

Saturn

Saturn At the beginning of June, Saturn rises at around 01:40 BST, shortly after Jupiter, and by its end at around 11 pm BST whilst its magnitude increases slightly from +0.4 to +0.2. At the same time, its angular size increases from 17.8 to 18.3 arc seconds. Its rings span some 37 arc seconds across and, at 20 degrees, the rings are somewhat less tilted to the line of sight than at their maximum of 27 degrees. Saturn lies in Capricornus until the 3rd of June when moves into Sagittarius. Sadly again, its low elevation before sunrise will somewhat limit our views of this most beautiful planet.

Jupiter

Jupiter. As June begins, Jupiter rises around 01:15 BST shining at magnitude -2.6. During the month Jupiter brightens to magnitude -2.7 whilst its angular size increases from 44.7 to to 47.2 arc seconds. By month's end, Jupiter rises just before 11pm BST. Moving in retrograde motion westwards across the sky, Jupiter lies in Sagittarius, initially close to the border with Capricornus. With an elevation of ~12 degrees before dawn, a low south-eastern horizon will be needed and our views of the giant planet and its Gallilean moons will be somewhat hindered by the depth of atmosphere through which it will be observed.

Mars

Mars can be seen towards the southeast in the pre-dawn sky at the start of the month rising at about 01:45 BST. It will then have a magnitude of +0.0 and a 9.3 arc second, salmon-pink, disk whilst lying in Aquarius before moving into Pisces on the 25th. By month's end it rises at about 00:30 BST and its magnitude will have increased to -0.5 and it angular size to 11.4 arc seconds. Amateur telescope could now see some features, such as Syrtis Major, on its surface when the seeing conditions are good.
Venus

Venus, having dominated the western sky for several months, passes in front (not quite - half a solar diameter north) of the Sun on June 3rd. It reappears in the pre-dawn sky by the 12th rising some 45 minutes before the Sun shining at magnitude -4.1. Then, its disk is 55 arc seconds across and ~3% illuminated. By the 20th, it rises some 80 minutes before the Sun when its magnitude has increased to -4.5. By the end of June, Venus rises 80 minutes befor the Sun with magnitude of -4.7 whilst its disk has reduced in angular size to 44 arc seconds but is then 18% illuminated - which is why the magnitude has increased.

Mercury

Mercury, As June's long twilight ends, Mercury is the only planet visible in the western sky and reaches greatest elongation east on the 4th of June. It then shines at magnitude +0.1 and has a 8 arc second, 37% illuminated, disk. It sets more than an hour and 45 minutes after the Sun during the first week of June but, by the 12th its magnitude has dropped to +1.2 and becomes increasingly hard to see. By then, binoculars might well be needed, but please do not use them until after the Sun has set. Moving towards the Earth, Mercury will be closet to us (inferior conjunction) on the 1st of July.

The Night Sky in and around Swindon June 2020

The Bubble Nebula NGC 7635

NGC 7635, also known as the Bubble Nebula, Sharpless 162, or Caldwell 11, is an H II region emission nebula in the constellation Cassiopeia.
Learn the Mare on the Moon


Mare on the Moon
Image: Ian Morison

Why not use the annotated image of the full Moon to learn the locations of the Moon's Mare. You can see some of them with your unaided eye and binoculars will enable you to spot them all.
Compiled by Prof. Ian Morison
The planets this month
June 9th - before dawn: the Moon, Jupiter and Saturn

The Moon with Saturn & Jupiter
Image: Stellarium/IM
Early risers will, if clear, be able to observe the waxing Moon towards the south making a nice triangle with Saturn, above, and Jupiter up to the right.
June 19th - just before dawn : Venus and a very thin crestent Moon

Venus and a thin crescent Moon
Image: Stellarium/IM

Just before dawn on the 19th, and given a very low horizon between the east and northeast, it might be possible to spot Venus (having passed in front of the Sun) close to a very thin crescent Moon. Binoculars may well be needed, but please do not use them after the Sun has risen.

June 27th before dawn: Venus lies between the Hyades and Pleiades Clusters in Taurus

Venus above the Hyades Cluster in Taurus
Image: Stellarium/IM
Given a clear morning and a very low horizon just north of east, very early risers could spot Venus lying just above the Hyades cluster with the bright star Aldebaran lying to its fore. Binoculars may well be needed to cut through the Sun's glare, but please do not use them after the Sun has risen
The constellation Hercules
Between the constellation Bootes and the bright star Vega in Lyra lies the constellation Hercules.The Red Giant star Alpha Herculis or Ras Algethi, its arabic name, is one of the largest stars known, with a diameter of around 500 times that of our Sun. In common with most giant stars it varies its size, changing in brightness as it does so from 3rd to 4th magnitude. Lying along one side of the "keystone" lies one of the wonders of the skies, the great globular cluster, M13. Just visible to the unaided eye on a dark clear night, it is easily seen through binoculars as a small ball of cotten wool about 1/3 the diameter of the full Moon. The brightness increases towards the centre where the concentration of stars is greatest. It is a most beautiful sight in a small telescope. It contains around 300,000 stars in a region of space 100 light years across, and is the brightest globular cluster that can be seen in the northern hemisphere.

The Globular Cluster M13 in Hercules. Image by Yuugi Kitahara
The constellation of Ursa Major

The stars of the Plough, shown linked by the thicker lines in the chart above, form one of the most recognised star patterns in the sky. Also called the Big Dipper, after the soup ladles used by farmer's wives in America to serve soup to the farm workers at lunchtime, it forms part of the Great Bear constellation - not quite so easy to make out! The stars Merak and Dubhe form the pointers which will lead you to the Pole Star, and hence find North. The stars Alcor and Mizar form a naked eye double which repays observation in a small telescope as Mizar is then shown to be an easily resolved double star. A fainter reddish star forms a triangle with Alcor and Mizar.

Ursa Major contains many interesting "deep sky" objects. The brightest, listed in Messier's Catalogue, are shown on the chart, but there are many fainter galaxies in the region too. In the upper right of the constellation are a pair of interacting galaxies M81 and M82 shown in the image below. M82 is undergoing a major burst of star formation and hence called a "starburst galaxy". They can be seen together using a low power eyepiece on a small telescope.


M81 and M82

Another, and very beautiful, galaxy is M101 which looks rather like a pinwheel firework, hence its other name the Pinwheel Galaxy. It was discovered in1781 and was a late entry to Messier's calalogue of nebulous objects. It is a type Sc spiral galaxy seen face on which is at a distance of about 24 million light years. Type Sc galaxies have a relativly small nucleus and open spiral arms. With an overall diameter of 170,000 light it is one of the largest spirals known (the Milky Way has a diameter of ~ 130,000 light years).


M101 - The Ursa Major Pinwheel Galaxy
Though just outside the constellation boundary, M51 lies close to Alkaid, the leftmost star of the Plough. Also called the Whirlpool Galaxy it is being deformed by the passage of the smaller galaxy on the left. This is now gravitationally captured by M51 and the two will eventually merge. M51 lies at a distance of about 37 million light years and was the first galaxy in which spiral arms were seen. It was discovered by Charles Messier in 1773 and the spiral structure was observed by Lord Rosse in 1845 using the 72" reflector at Birr Castle in Ireland - for many years the largest telescope in the world.

M51 - The Whirlpool Galaxy
Lying close to Merak is the planetary nebula M97 which is usually called the Owl Nebula due to its resemblance to an owl's face with two large eyes. It was first called this by Lord Rosse who drew it in 1848 - as shown in the image below right. Planetary nebulae ar the remnants of stars similar in size to our Sun. When all possible nuclear fusion processes are complete, the central core collpses down into a "white dwarf" star and the the outer parts of the star are blown off to form the surrounding nebula.

M97 - The Owl Planetary Nebula & Lord Rosse's 1848 drawing of the Owl Nebula
The constellations Lyra and Cygnus

This month the constellations Lyra and Cygnus are seen almost overhead as darkness falls with their bright stars Vega, in Lyra, and Deneb, in Cygnus, making up the "summer triangle" of bright stars with Altair in the constellation Aquila below. (see sky chart above)

Lyra

Lyra is dominated by its brightest star Vega, the fifth brightest star in the sky. It is a blue-white star having a magnitude of 0.03, and lies 26 light years away. It weighs three times more than the Sun and is about 50 times brighter. It is thus burning up its nuclear fuel at a greater rate than the Sun and so will shine for a correspondingly shorter time. Vega is much younger than the Sun, perhaps only a few hundred million years old, and is surrounded by a cold,dark disc of dust in which an embryonic solar system is being formed!

There is a lovely double star called Epsilon Lyrae up and to the left of Vega. A pair of binoculars will show them up easily - you might even see them both with your unaided eye. In fact a telescope, provided the atmosphere is calm, shows that each of the two stars that you can see is a double star as well so it is called the double double!


Epsilon Lyra - The Double Double
Between Beta and Gamma Lyra lies a beautiful object called the Ring Nebula. It is the 57th object in the Messier Catalogue and so is also called M57. Such objects are called planetary nebulae as in a telescope they show a disc, rather like a planet. But in fact they are the remnants of stars, similar to our Sun, that have come to the end of their life and have blown off a shell of dust and gas around them. The Ring Nebula looks like a greenish smoke ring in a small telescope, but is not as impressive as it is shown in photographs in which you can also see the faint central "white dwarf" star which is the core of the original star which has collapsed down to about the size of the Earth. Still very hot this shines with a blue-white colour, but is cooling down and will eventually become dark and invisible - a "black dwarf"! Do click on the image below to see the large version - its wonderful!

M57 - the Ring Nebula
Image: Hubble Space telescope
M56 is an 8th magnitude Globular Cluster visible in binoculars roughly half way between Albireo (the head of the Swan) and Gamma Lyrae. It is 33,000 light years away and has a diameter of about 60 light years. It was first seen by Charles Messier in 1779 and became the 56th entry into his catalogue.

M56 - Globular Cluster
Cygnus

Cygnus, the Swan, is sometimes called the "Northern Cross" as it has a distinctive cross shape, but we normally think of it as a flying Swan. Deneb,the arabic word for "tail", is a 1.3 magnitude star which marks the tail of the swan. It is nearly 2000 light years away and appears so bright only because it gives out around 80,000 times as much light as our Sun. In fact if Deneb where as close as the brightest star in the northern sky, Sirius, it would appear as brilliant as the half moon and the sky would never be really dark when it was above the horizon!

The star, Albireo, which marks the head of the Swan is much fainter, but a beautiful sight in a small telescope. This shows that Albireo is made of two stars, amber and blue-green, which provide a wonderful colour contrast. With magnitudes 3.1 and 5.1 they are regarded as the most beautiful double star that can be seen in the sky.


Alberio: Diagram showing the colours and relative brightnesses
Cygnus lies along the line of the Milky Way, the disk of our own Galaxy, and provides a wealth of stars and clusters to observe. Just to the left of the line joining Deneb and Sadr, the star at the centre of the outstretched wings, you may, under very clear dark skys, see a region which is darker than the surroundings. This is called the Cygnus Rift and is caused by the obscuration of light from distant stars by a lane of dust in our local spiral arm. the dust comes from elements such as carbon which have been built up in stars and ejected into space in explosions that give rise to objects such as the planetary nebula M57 described above.

There is a beautiful region of nebulosity up and to the left of Deneb which is visible with binoculars in a very dark and clear sky. Photographs show an outline that looks like North America - hence its name the North America Nebula. Just to its right is a less bright region that looks like a Pelican, with a long beak and dark eye, so not surprisingly this is called the Pelican Nebula. The photograph below shows them well.


The North America Nebula
Brocchi's Cluster An easy object to spot with binoculars in Gygnus is "Brocchi's Cluster", often called "The Coathanger",although it appears upside down in the sky! Follow down the neck of the swan to the star Albireo, then sweep down and to its lower left. You should easily spot it against the dark dust lane behind.
The constellation Virgo
Virgo, rising in the east in late evening this month, is not one of the most prominent constellations, containing only one bright star, Spica, but is one of the largest and is very rewarding for those with "rich field" telescopes capable of seeing the many galaxies that lie within its boundaries. Spica is, in fact, an exceedingly close double star with the two B type stars orbiting each other every 4 days. Their total luminosity is 2000 times that of our Sun. In the upper right hand quadrant of Virgo lies the centre of the Virgo Cluster of galaxies. There are 13 galaxies in the Messier catalogue in this region, all of which can be seen with a small telescope. The brightest is the giant elliptical galaxy, M87, with a jet extending from its centre where there is almost certainly a massive black hole into which dust and gas are falling. This releases great amounts of energy which powers particles to reach speeds close to the speed of light forming the jet we see. M87 is also called VIRGO A as it is a very strong radio source.

The Giant Elliptical Galaxy M87
Below Porrima and to the right of Spica lies M104, an 8th magnitude spiral galaxy about 30 million light years away from us. Its spiral arms are edge on to us so in a small telescope it appears as an elliptical galaxy. It is also known as the Sombrero Galaxy as it looks like a wide brimmed hat in long exposure photographs.
The Sombrero Galaxy

M104 - The Sombrero Galaxy
It lies close to the direction of the open cluster Messier 52. The "bubble" is created by the stellar wind from a massive hot, 8.7 magnitude young central star.